Thursday, October 7, 2010

Lesson 8

 Nominal Declension


Classical Armenian nouns (also adjectives) have 6 cases, though sometimes in some grammar books one may see that 7 or 10 cases are mentioned. We’ll speak about all of them. But first, let us know that there are 9 declensions, that is, there are 9 ways in which the cases are formed. Please, don’t be frightened of these numbers: 10, 9 :); you are not going to learn all of them at once.
The first declension we are going to learn in this lesson is the i-declension. Why i (ի)? Because this is the vowel that is added to the noun to make the genitive case.


Ի-DECLENSION
SINGULAR
1. բան – word (nominative: usually used as the subject of the sentence)
արքայ – king


2. բանի – of word (genitive: denotes possession)
արքայի – of king


3. բանի – to word (dative: used with verbs like to give, to help, to believe sb or sth, etc)
արքայի – to king
In this and most other declensions the genitive and dative cases are identical in form. As you can see, it is easy to form them: just add the letter ի (i) to the word.


4. (զ)բան – (the) word (accusative: usually used as a direct object) – We know this case, so again, no difficulty.
(զ)արքայ – (the) king


5. ի բանէ – from/of word (ablative)
յարքայէ - from/of king
Here the final letter ի changes to է and the preposition ի is placed before the word. This preposition is written separately when followed by a word with initial consonant. If you remember from the previous lessons, this preposition becomes յ before a word with initial vowel and this յ is not written separately.


6. բանիւ – with/by/through word (instrumental) (pronounced as “baniv / p’aniv”)
արքայիւ – with/by/through king (pronounced as “ark’ayiv”)
Here the letter ւ is added to the genitive case, that is, իւ to the nominative case.


The above cases are the main ones. The following 4 may be considered or not as separate cases.


7. ի բանի – in word (locative)
յարքայի – in king
Here the preposition ի (յ) is added to the genitive/dative case.


8. զբանէ – about/concerning word (narrative)
զարքայէ – about/concerning king


9. զբանիւ – around word (circumdative)
զարքայիւ – around king


10. ո՛վ բան – O word! (vocative)
ո՛վ արքայ
Please note that you don’t have to learn the last three cases now. Just know about their existence but forget them for now!


PLURAL
The plural of the above cases is formed according to the following rules (these rules are the same for most of declensions which we shall learn later).


We have already learned how to form the plural of nominative and accusative cases. Do you remember? We add the ending –ք to the singular nominative and –ս (English “s”) to the accusative: բան – բանք, զբան – զբանս, արքայ – արքայք, զարքայ – զարքայս.


As we noted above, the genitive and dative cases are identical in most of declensions. This is true both for singular and plural nouns. But in plural we add the letter ց (ts') to the singular genitive/dative: բանի – բանից (of words, to words); արքայի – արքայից.


The plural ablative case is made of the plural genitive case by simply adding to it the preposition ի (յ): բանիցի բանից (from words), արքայիցյարքայից (from kings).


The plural of the instrumental case is formed of the singular instrumental case by adding to it the letter ք (in this and several other declensions): բանիւ – բանիւք (pronounced as “baniuk’ / / p’aniuk’”) (by/with words); արքայիւ – արքայիւք (“ark’ayyuk’”)- by/with kings.


The plural of the locative case is formed of the ի (յ) preposition and the plural indefinite accusative (that is, without the preposition զ): բանս ի բանս (in words); արքայսյարքայս (in kings). 

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Here are some other words that belong to the ի-declension. They are declined just the same way as the words բան and արքայ.

 բանտ (prison), երկիւղ (fear - “yerkiuł / yergiuł”), վախ (precipice), ամենայն (all), ուխտ (covenant), երկին* (heaven, sky), ծառայ (servant), տաւն / տօն (feast), քայլ (step), հաց (bread), երեկոյ (evening), երախայ  (child, catechumen), մատեան* (book), սիրտ* (heart).


* In the words marked with an asterisk, sound change occurs in the following way: մատեան – մատենի (the second ա is lost due to the change of stress); երկին - երկնի, սիրտ – սրտի (ի is lost for the same reason).
This is the rule: In Classical Armenian, the weak vowels and diphthongs change when they lose the stress. And they lose the stress when they stop being in the last syllable of a word. As we know, in Armenian, the stress is usually on the last syllable.


սի՛րտ – սրտի՛
մատեա՛ն – մատենի՛



The weak vowels ի and ու are lost (ջուր - ջրոյ).

The diphthong եա changes to ե, the diphthong ոյ changes to ուոյժ - գուժի).


♦♦♦♦♦♦

Reading
(The translation is literal. If needed, see the transcriptions of the new words in the vocabulary page of this blog.)

Դուռն դրախտի (door of paradise)։ Բարձրութիւն երկնից (height of heaven/heavens)։ Թերթ մատենին (sheet of the book)։ Ուրախութիւն տաւնի (joy of feast)։ Գալուստ երեկոյի (coming of evening)։ Վիշտք ծառայից (sorrows/afflictions of servants)։ Իմանալ սրտիւ (to understand by heart)։ Կամիմ ի սրտէ (I wish from heart)։ Երգեմք ի տաւնին (We sing in the feast)։ Երկիւղիւ Տեառն հաստատեալ է սիրտ նորա (By fear of Lord established is (=is established) his heart)։ Կե՛ր ի հացէ այտի (Eat (singular imperative) from bread that!)։ Կողովք հացից (baskets of breads)։ Ճանաչեմ զնա ի քայլից նորա (I know/recognize him/her from steps his/her (=his/her steps))։  Երկինք երկնից (heaven(s) of heavens)։ Զուարճանայք տաւնիւք (You (plural) are glad/joyful with feasts)։ Չէ չարութիւն ի սրտի քում (There is no wickedness in heart your (singular))։ Ի հացից նոցա առնումք մեզ (From breads their (= their breads) we take us (dative case = for us / to us )


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To listen to the audio recording of the Classical Armenian words and sentences of this lesson, use the following link -

Sunday, August 15, 2010

Lesson 7


Let's recollect some grammatical rules that we have already learned.
We know the plural ending ք: դաս – դասք (lesson - lessons), բան – բանք (word - words)։
    We know that in the accusative case (mostly as a direct object) this ք changes to ս: դասք -դասս, բանք -բանս։
    We know that the preposition զ is used with the accusative case as a definite article: զդաս – զդասս (the lesson – the lessons), զբան - զբանս (the word – the words). Remember: these are used mostly as direct objects, not subjects.

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The Definite Article ն
For ALL cases of noun the definite article is ն (n), which is added to the word from the end.

nominative case - the subject of the sentence
գինի+ն - գինին (ginin / k'inin) - the wine
sing. - քահանայ, քահանայն (k'ahana, k'ahanayn) - priest, the priest
պատարագ, պատարագն (patarag, pataragən / badarak', badarak'ən)- sacrifice, the sacrifice
plur. - քահանայք, քահանայքն (k'ahanayk', k'ahanayk'ən) - priests, the priests
պատարագք, պատարագքն (pataragək', pataragk'ən / badarak'ək', badarak'k'ən) - sacrifices, the sacrifices

Word Combinations

We may say both:
1) գինի անոյշ (noun + adjective)
and
2) անոյշ գինի (adjective + noun)

When we need to add the preposition զ, in both structures զ is added to the first word:
զ+գինի անոյշ - զգինի անոյշ (әzgini / әzk'ini anuysh)
զ+անոյշ գինի - զանոյշ գինի (zanuysh gini / k'ini)


In plural, both words are usually in plural in the structure 1):
գինիք անոյշք (ginik' / k'inik' anuyshәk')
But in the structure 2) the first word (the adjective) remains singular:
անոյշ գինիք (anuysh ginik' / k'inik')
Ըմպել զանոյշ գինին եւ թողուլ զյոռին։
(Ըմպել զ+անոյշ գինի+ն եւ թողուլ զ+յոռի+ն։)
(әmpel / әmbel zanuysh ginin / k'inin yev tołul әzhor'in)
To drink the pleasant wine and to leave the bad one.
Ուտել հաց եւ ըմպել գինի։ To eat bread and to drink wine.
(utel / udel hac' yev әmpel / әmbel gini / k'ini )
Ուտել զհացն եւ ըմպել զգինին։ To eat the bread and to drink the wine.
(utel / udel әzhac'әn yev әmpel / әmbel әzginin / әzk'inin
Հացն ի վերայ սեղանոյ է։ The bread is on the table (or altar).
(Hac'n i vera sełano e)
Քա՞ղցր է գինին այն թէ դառն։ Is that wine sweet or bitter?
(K'ałc'әr e ginin / k'inin ayn t'e dar'әn / t'ar'әn?)

The Present Indicative Tense


Classical Armenian has only one tense to express the actions of the present. It is the present indicative.

To conjugate the verbs in this tense, we need to add the proper endings to the so-called present stem of the verb. The verb in Armenian has 2 stems - the present and the aorist. Now we need only the present stem, which is very easy to find. Just remove the ending of the infinitive and you will have the present stem. You remember, of course, that the infinitive has the following endings: -ել, -ել(իլ), -ալ, -ուլ, -ոլ.

ըմպել - ըմպ, հասանել - հասան
խաւսել (իլ) - խաւս, ուսանել (իլ) - ուսան
գնալ - գն, բառնալ - բառն
թողուլ - թող, առնուլ - առն


Do you remember the present short forms of the verb “to be”? They are also the endings of the present indicative tense for the verbs of the conjugation “ե” (that is, the verbs which end in “ել” in the infinitive).

Conjugation “ե”

Ըմպել - ըմպ
ըմպ+ եմ - ըմպեմ - I drink / am drinking (әmpem / әmbem)
ըմպ+ ես - ըմպես - you drink / are drinking (әmpes / әmbes)
ըմպ+ է - ըմպէ - he/she/it drinks / is drinking (әmpe / әmbe)
ըմպ+ եմք - ըմպեմք - we drink / are drinking (әmpemk' / әmbemk')
ըմպ+ էք - ըմպէք - you drink / are drinking (әmpek' / әmbek')
ըմպ+ են - ըմպեն - they drink / are drinking (әmpen / әmben)

Conjugation “ի” (that is, the verbs which end in “իլ” in the infinitive)

խաւսել / խաւսիլ (= խօսել/խօսիլ) - խաւս  
խաւս+ իմ - խաւսիմ - I speak / am speaking (xosim)
խաւս+ իս - խաւսիս - you speak / are speaking (xosis)
խաւս+ ի - խաւսի - he/she/it speaks / is speaking (xosi)
խաւս+ իմք - խաւսիմք - we speak / are speaking (xosimk')
խաւս+ իք - խաւսիք - you speak / are speaking (xosik')
խաւս+ ին - խաւսին - they speak / are speaking (xosin)

Conjugation “ա”

գնալ - գն
գն+ ամ - նամ - I go / am going (gәnam / k'әnam)
գն+ աս - գնաս - you go / are going (gәnas / k'әnas)
գն+ այ - գնայ - he/ she/ it goes / is going (gәna / k'әna)
գն+ ամք - գնամք - we go / are going (gәnamk' / k'әnamk')
գն+ այք - գնայք - you go / are going (gәnayk' / k'әnayk')
գն+ ան - գնան - they go / are going (gәnan / k'әnan)

Conjugation “ու”

առնուլ - առն

առն+ ում - առնում - I take / am taking (ar'num)
առն+ ուս - առնուս - you take / are taking (ar'nus)
առն+ ու - առնու - he/she/it takes / is taking (ar'nu)
առն+ ումք - առնումք - we take / are taking (ar'numk')
առն+ ուք - առնուք - you take / are taking (ar'nuk')
առն+ ուն - առնուն - they take / are taking (ar'nun)

If you might notice, in all these groups or conjugations the endings of the present indicative are themselves built of the letters ե, ի, ա, ու + մ (for the I person singular), մք (I person plural), ս (II singular), ք (II plural), nothing or է, յ (III singular), ն (III plural). 

The negative forms are made by adding ոչ or չ- to the verbs, for example: ոչ առնում // չառնում (voch ar'num // char'num) - I don't take.


Reading 
(The English translation of the sentences is literal, word by word, 
so that you may understand each of them.)

Եթէ ոչ Տէր շինէ զտուն, ի նանիր վաստակին շինողք նորա։ If not Lord builds the house, in vain labour (III plural) builders of it. Եթէ ոչ Տէր պահէ զքաղաք, ընդունայն տքնին պահապանք նորա։ If not Lord keeps/preserves the town, in vain toil (III plural) guards of it. Ո՜րպէս ոչ ննջէ եւ ոչ ի քուն երթայ Պահապանն Իսրայելի։ How not sleeps and not into sleep goes the Guard/Protector of Israel. Իջանեն անձրեւք, յառնեն գետք, շնչեն հողմք։ Fall/Come down rains, rise rivers, blow winds. Այր իմաստուն շինէ զտուն իւր ի վերայ վիմի։ Man wise builds the house his on stone. Տղայն Յովհաննէս լսէ զբանս հաւր։ Child John listens the words of father. Չկամիմ զդա։ I do not want that. Տաս դու զամենայն բարիս մեր։ Give (II singular) you the all goods our. Երթամք ի դաշտ։ We go to field. Ելանես ի լեառն։ You climb/ascend to mountain. Անառակ որդին թողու զհայրն եւ երթայ յերկիր աւտար։ Prodigal the son leaves the father and goes to country foreign. Աբրահամ զենու զգառն։ Abraham slaughters the lamb. Ոչ գիտեմք զինչ խաւսիս։ Not we know (we don't know) what you speak. Տեսանեմք զնա զի երթայ յայգի։ We see him that he goes to garden. Ոչ առնէք զարդարութիւն։ Not you do (you don't d0) justice /righteousness. Զի՞ կամիք սպանանել զնա։ Why you want (plural) to kill him?

Verbs

շինէ (shine) builds

վաստակին (vastakin / vasdagin) they labour

պահէ (pahe / bahe) keeps, preserves
տքնին (tәk'nin / dәk'nin) they toil

ննջէ (nәnje / nәnch'e) sleeps

ի քուն երթայ (i k'un yert'a) falls asleep

իջանեն (ijanen / ich'anen) they fall/come down

յառնեն (har'nen) they rise

շնչեն (shәnch'en) they breathe / blow (of the winds)

լսէ (lәse) hears, listens

չկամիմ (ch'әkamim / ch'әgamim) I don't want

տաս (tas / das)  you (singular) give

երթամք (yert'amk') we go
ելանես (yelanes) you (singular) ascend; go out

թողու (t'ołu) leaves

երթայ (yert'a) goes

զենու (zenu) slaughters

գիտեմք (gitemk' / k'idemk') we know

խաւսիս (xosis) you (singular) speak

տեսանեմք (tesanemk' / desanemk') we see

առնէք* (ar'nek') you (plural) do

կամիք (kamik' / gamik') you (plural) want

սպանանել (spananel / әsbananel) to kill, murder
* Do not confuse the verb առնուլ (to take) with the verb առնել (to do, to make, to create). Pay attention to their endings which are different, which means they are also conjugated differently.

+ Construct the infinitives of the above conjugated verbs and try to conjugate them, or some of them, in all persons, in the present indicative tense, according to the patterns provided in this lesson. Also, try to make simple sentences, using the nouns, verbs and the grammar patterns that we have learned so far. 

You will find the translations of the other words of the above text not only in the literal translation I have provided, but also in the vocabulary page of this blog.


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To listen to the Armenian words and sentences of this lesson click on the following link:
http://www.mediafire.com/listen/5uagv7zad5drw6z/Classical_Armenian-7-mp3.mp3

Tuesday, August 10, 2010

Lesson 6

To be able to read Classical Armenian texts we still need to know some rules of pronunciation. 

# In one of the previous lessons we learned how to pronounce the diphthong ոյ. When followed by a consonant, it is pronounced as "uy" instead of "oy": սոյն - suyn, համբոյր - hambuyr or hamp'uyr / hamp'uyr. BUT: հոյակապ - hoyakap / hoyagab, գոյութիւն - goyut'iun / k'oyut'iun (because in these examples ոյ is not followed by a consonant)

If ոյ is at the end of a word, we read it as "o", omitting the sound "y": ձուլածոյ - dz'ulaco / c'uladz'o, դշխոյ -  dəshxo / t'əshxo. BUT: in some monosyllabic words we read it as it is written - "oy": գոյ - goy / k'oy, Նոյ - Noy, խոյ - xoy.  
# The diphthong այ (ay) in final position is also pronounced without the sound "y" (in other positions it is pronounced as it is written):  տղայ - təła / dəła, սատանայ - satana / sadana. BUT:  in some monosyllabic words we read the final այ as it is written - "ay": հայ - hay, ճայ - chay / jay, նայ - nay, վայ - vay, բայ - bay / p'ay.
# The pronunciation of the diphthong եա is between "ea" and "ia". We represent it in the transcriptions of our lessons as it is written, that is, "ea", but remember to pronounce it somewhat quickly, as one syllable and not two: ողորմեա - vołormea, մատեան - matean / madean. But sometimes եա is pronounced as "ya": դղեակ - dəłyak / t'əłyag.
# The diphthong իւ at the beginning of a word before a consonant is pronounced as "yu": իւղ - yuł, իւր - yur.
In other positions it is pronounced as "iu" when followed by a consonant, but quickly, as one syllable, not two: բնութիւն - bənutiun / p'ənut'iun, ձիւն - dz'iun / c'iun. BUT: դիւային - divayin / t'ivayin, անիւ - aniv (because in these examples իւ is not followed by a consonant).
# The diphthong եւ when followed by a consonant is pronounced as the diphthong իւ: հեւր - hiur, աղբեւր - ałbiur / aghp'iur. In the following word it sounds as "yu": առեւծ - ar'yuc / ar'yudz'. BUT: թեւ - t'ev, տեւական - tevakan / devagan (because in these examples եւ is not followed by a consonant). 
In post-Mesropian times this diphthong and digraph was sometimes replaced by the diphthong and digraph իւ, that is why one may see some words in nominative and accusative cases written both with իւ, and եւ: հեւր-հիւր, աղբեւր-աղբիւր (in other cases and in composite words when followed by another root or a suffix եւ changes to իւ also in Mesropian Armenian).
In three words եւ before a consonant is pronounced as "eo" or "yo": արդեւք - ardeok' / art'eok', եւթն - yot'ən, գեւղ - geoł / k'eoł. These words are also written with եաւ or եօ instead of եւ (that is, արդեօք, եօթն, գեօղ), but the more ancient orthography is considered to be with եւ.
# The diphthong աւ when followed by a consonant is pronounced as simple "o" (though this was not so in the Mesropian times), because of which in the 11th-12th centuries the letter "o" was introduced into the Armenian alphabet to use instead of  աւ when it is pronounced as "o".  But this does not mean that after that աւ of the closed syllables stopped being used in Classical Armenian texts. Both ways of writing were used. Examples: ամաւթ // ամօթ - amot', աւր // օր - or, առաւաւտ // առաւօտ - ar'avot / ar'avod. BUT: աւազան - avazan, տաւիղ - tavił / davił (because in these examples աւ is not followed by a consonant).Exception: աղաւնի - ałavni (though աւ is followed by a consonant here, it is pronounced as "av" and not "o").
# The digraph ու when preceding a vowel is pronounced as "v": զուարթ - zvart', արուեստ - arvest / arvesd. There is only one exception which we shall learn when studying the past imperfect tense of verbs.
# We know that the letter ո in initial position is pronounced as "vo" instead of its ancient pronunciation which was "o": ոսկի - voski / vosgi, ոսոխ - vosox. But we also learned the word ով which is pronounced as "ov". Тhere are other words too in which the initial ո is pronounced as "o". Those words are proper nouns and loans: ովկիանոս - ovkianos* / ovgianos, ովսաննայ ovsanna, ոլիմպոս - olimpos / olimbos, ովասիս - ovasis, Ոսրոյենէ - osroyene, Ովսէէ - ovsee, Ովբէդ ovbed / ovp'et'. (* In many loan words you may find the Greek ω (Omega) transcripted in Armenian letters as ով instead of simple ո.)

Now we know the main rules for reading Classical Armenian texts.

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FOR PRACTICE
EA pronunciation: յոյս (huys), լոյս (luys), գոյանալ (goyanal), գոյութիւն (goyut'iun), թուական (təvakan), ստուար (stvar), բաւական (bavakan), ստուեր (stver), գոյ (goy), խոյ (xoy), դղեակ (dəłyak), արիւն (ariun), անկիւն (ankiun), յարութիւն (harut'iun), բեւր (biur), հարեւր (hariur), լեառն (lear'ən), պատեան (patean), վայրկեան (vayrkean), աբեղայ (abeła), ագուգայ (aguga), կաթսայ (kat'sa), ճայ (chay), բայ (bay), Նոյ (noy), վայ (vay), կեանք (keank'), աստուածային (astvacayin), ով (ov), ովսաննայ (ovsanna), որոգայթ (vorogayt'), ոզնի (vozni), մարդոյ (mardo or mart'o), յարգոյ (hargo), այգւոյ (aygvo), բարւոյ (barvo), հովանի (hovani), տերեւ (terev), դեւ (dev), կարաւտ // կարօտ (karot), աւտար // օտար (otar), ակաւս // ակօս (akos), աղաւթք // աղօթք (ałot'k'), աղաւնի (ałavni), զուարթ (zəvart'), անսուաղ (ansəvał), արդեւք // արդեաւք // արդեօք (ardeok'), եւթն // եաւթն // եօթն (yot'ən), գեւղ // գեաւղ // գեօղ (geoł)։ 

WA pronunciation: յոյս (huys), լոյս (luys), գոյանալ (k'oyanal), գոյութիւն (k'oyut'iun), թուական (t'əvagan), ստուար (əsdvar), բաւական (p'avagan), ստուեր (əsdver), գոյ(k'oy), խոյ (xoy), դղեակ (t'əłyag), արիւն (ariun), անկիւն (angiun), յարութիւն (harut'iun), բեւր (p'iur), հարեւր (hariur), լեառն (lear'ən), պատեան (badean), վայրկեան (vayrgean), աբեղայ (ap'eła), ագուգայ (ak'uk'a), կաթսայ (gat'sa), ճայ(jay), բայ (p'ay), Նոյ (noy), վայ (vay), կեանք (geank'), աստուածային (asdvadz'ayin), ով (ov), ովսաննայ (ovsanna), որոգայթ (vorok'ayt'), ոզնի (vozni), մարդոյ (mart'o), յարգոյ (hark'o), այգւոյ (ayk'vo), բարւոյ (p'arvo), հովանի (hovani), տերեւ (derev), դեւ (t'ev), կարաւտ // կարօտ (garod), աւտար // օտար (odar), ակաւս // ակօս (agos), աղաւթք // աղօթք (ałot'k'), աղաւնի (ałavni), զուարթ (zəvart'), անսուաղ (ansəvał), արդեւք // արդեաւք // արդեօք (art'eok'), եւթն // եաւթն // եօթն (yot'ən), գեւղ // գեաւղ // գեօղ (k'eoł)։

To listen to the Armenian words of this lesson, click on the following link -
http://www.mediafire.com/listen/jyoansae2s7ykjf/Classical_Armenian-6-mp3.mp3

Monday, August 2, 2010

Lesson 5

In this lesson we are going to finish with the letters of the Armenian alphabet. The remaining letters are the following:
Ժ ժ (zhe=ʒe) as in "pleasure"
Ձ ձ (dz'a / tsa=c'a) EA pronunciation - as in the Italian "mezzo"; WA pronunciation of this letter is the same with that of Ց ց (tso=c'o).

Պ պ (pe / be) EA pr. - as in "speak"; WA pr. - as in "bed"
Կ կ (ken / gen) EA pr. - as in "skate"; WA pr. - as in "get"
Տ տ (tiun / diun) EA pr. - as in "step"; WA pr. - as in "desk"

The above three letters are for the unaspirated variants of the aspirated voiceless consonants Փ փ (p'), Ք ք (k'), Թ թ (t'). They are letters for voiced consonants in WA.

The following two letters when pronounced according to the Eastern Armenian pronunciation are the hardest for foreigners and the Western Armenians. These sounds also exist in Georgian, the sound system of which is very similar to that of Classical and Eastern Armenian languages. These two sounds are the unaspirated variants of the aspirated voiceless consonants Ց ց (c'o) and Չ չ (ch'a) and are letters for voiced consonants in WA.

Ծ ծ (tsa=ca / dza) In the EA pronunciation this letter is a variant of Ց ց (tso=c'o). Hear it in the recording and if you are unable to distinguish it from Ց ց (tso=c'o) or pronounce it correctly, pronounce as Ց ց (tso=c'o).
---- In the WA pronunciation this letter sounds like the sound "dz" in the Italian word "mezzo".
Ճ ճ (che / je) In the EA pronunciation this letter is a variant of Չ չ (ch'a). Hear it in the recording and if you are unable to distinguish it from Չ չ (ch'a) or pronounce it correctly, pronounce as Չ չ (ch'a).
---- In the WA pronunciation this letter sounds like the "j" in "jam".

Now we know all the 36 letters of the Mesropian alphabet. 10 letters of the alphabet are pronounced differently in the Western and Eastern Armenian languages. These 10 letters represent 10 different sounds in the Classical and Eastern Armenian languages and don't repeat the sounds of the other letters of the alphabet. Due to the historical sound change, they represent only 5 sounds in the Western Armenian language and repeat the sounds of other 5 letters of the alphabet.

Those 10 letters are:
Բ, Գ, Դ, Ձ, Ջ (for voiced consonants in CA and EA; for voiceless aspirated consonants in WA and repeating the voiceless aspirated Փ, Ք, Թ, Ց, Չ)
Պ, Կ, Տ, Ծ, Ճ (for voiceless unaspirated consonants in CA and EA; for voiced consonants in WA)

Reading and some grammar


Այս է դաս մեր հինգերորդ։ (Ays e das mer hingerord / Ays e t'as mer hink'erort') - This is our fifth lesson. 
Ժամ է յառնել ի քնոյ։ (ʒam e har'nel i k'no) - It is time to wake up from sleep. 
Ժամ է երթալ յեկեղեցի։ (ʒam e yert'al hekełec'i hegełec'i) - It is time to go to church. 
ժամ (ʒam) - hour; time 
յառնել (har'nel) - to get up, to rise 
քուն (kun) - sleep 
ի քնոյ (i k'no) - from sleep 
մտանել ի քուն (mtanel i k'un / mdanel i k'un) - lit. to enter into sleep (to fall asleep) 
մտանել (mtanel / mdanel) - to enter 
եկեղեցի (yekełec'i / yegełec'i) - church 
յեկեղեցի (hekełec'i / hegełec'i) - to church
մտանել յեկեղեցի (mtanel hekełec'i / mdanel hegełec'i) - to enter church 
տուն (tun / dun) - home, house 
ի տուն  (i tun / i dun) - (to) home 
Գնա´ի տուն։ (Gna i tun / K'na i dun) - Go home. 
քաղաք (k'ałak') town, city 
ի քաղաք (i k'ałak') to town 
այգի (aygi / ayk'i) garden 
յայգի (haygi / hayk'i) to garden

The preposition ի (յ) is used with different cases and may express different meanings, even with the same case. When it is used with the accusative case, it may correspond to the English "to" and show the direction of the action.
Before a consonant this preposition is ի and is written separately. Before a vowel ի changes into յ and is not separated from the word it precedes.


քաղաք մեծ (k'ałak' mec / medz') - big / large town 
քաղաքք մեծք (k'ałak'ək' mecək' / medz'ək') - big towns (nominative case, usually the subject of the sentence) 
քաղաքս մեծս (kaghak'əs mecəs / medz'əs) big towns (accusative case, direct object, indefinite form) 
մեծ (mec / medz') - big, great 
Գնալ ի քաղաք մեծ։ (Gnal i kałak' mec / K'nal i kałak' medz') - To go to a big town. 
Գնալ ի քաղաքս մեծս։ (Gnal i kałak'əs mecəs / K'nal i kałak'əs medz'əs) - To go to big towns. 
այգի գեղեցիկ (aygi gełec'ik / ayk'i k'ełec'ig) - beautiful garden 
այգիք գեղեցիկք (aygik' gełec'ikək' / ayk'ik' k'ełec'igək') - beautiful gardens (nominative case) 
այգիս գեղեցիկս (aygis gełec'ikəs / ayk'is k'ełec'igəs) - beautiful gardens (accusative case, direct object, indefinite form)

As you might notice, the plural ending  ք ("k'") changes into ս ("s") in the accusative case.


ձայն զանգակի (dz'ayn zangaki / c'ayn zank'agi) - voice of a bell 
ձայն (dz'ayn / c'ayn) - voice 
զանգակ (zangak / zank'ag) - bell 
մեծ զանգակ (mec zangak / medz' zank'ag) - big bell 
զանգակք ոսկիք (zangakək' voskik' / zank'agək' vosgik') - golden bells 
ոսկի (voski / vosgi) - gold (noun); golden (adjective)

Քրիստոս Փրկիչ (K'ristos P'rkich' / K'risdos Prgich') - Christ the Saviour 
Աստուած եւ Տէր (Astvac yev Ter / Asdvadz' yev Der) - God and Lord 
կեանք եւ մահ (keank' yev mah / geank' yev mah) - life and death 
ծեր եւ մանուկ (cer yev manuk / dz'er yev manug) - (the) old and (the) children (lit. child) 
դուռն դրախտին (dur'ən draxtin / t'ur'ən t'raxdin) - the door of the paradise 
դրախտ (draxt / t'raxd) - paradise 
երկինք երրորդ (yerkink' yerrord / yergink' yerrort') - the third heaven 
երկինք (yerkink' / yergink') - heaven, sky 
երկիր մեր (yerkir mer / yergir mer) - our earth / land / country 
ծով կապոյտ (cov kapuyt / dz'ov gabuyd) - blue sea 
ծով (cov / dz'ov) - sea 
լիճ փոքր (lich p'ok'ər / lij p'ok'ər) - small lake 
լիճ (lich / lij) - lake 
ճանապարհ բարի (chanaparh bari / janabarh p'ari) - good way 
ճանապարհ (chanaparh / janabarh) - way, road 
աջ (aj or ach' / ach') - right 
ձախ (dz'ax / c'ax) - left 
դատաստան ահեղ (datastan aheł / t'adasdan aheł) - awesome judgment 
դատաստան (datastan / t'adasdan) - judgment 
գործ բարի  (gorc bari / k'ordz' p'ari) - good work / deed / act 
գործք բարիք (gorcək' barik' / k'ordzək' p'arik') - good works

Capital letters: ԳՈՐԾ, ԾՈՎ, ԼԻՃ, ԵԿԵՂԵՑԻ, ԵՐԿԻՆՔ, ԵՐԿԻՐ, ԱՅԳԻ, ԴԱՏԱՍՏԱՆ, ԱՀԵՂ, ԱՋ, ՁԱԽ, ՃԱՆԱՊԱՐՀ, ԿԱՊՈՅՏ, ԴՐԱԽՏ, ԿԵԱՆՔ, ՄԱՀ, ԾԵՐ, ՄԱՆՈՒԿ, ՔԱՂԱՔ, ԺԱՄ, ՔՈՒՆ, ԵՐԹԱԼ, ՄԵԾ, ՄՏԱՆԵԼ, ՅԱՌՆԵԼ։

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To listen to the Armenian letters, words and sentences of this lesson click on the following link-
http://www.mediafire.com/listen/kc06b25hp7w3ma8/Classical_Armenian-5-mp3.mp3

Monday, July 26, 2010

Lesson 4

We have learned 22 letters so far: Ա, Բ, Գ, Դ, Ե, Զ, Է, Ը, Թ, Լ, Հ, Մ, Յ, Ն, Ո, Ռ, Ս, Վ, Ր, Ւ, Փ, Ք.
From the letters representing vowels only one letter has remained to learn, which is Ի ի (ini). Be careful not to confuse its capital letter with the capital letter Ւ (viun).   The latter has a small ending to its shorter element, while Ի (ini) doesn't have it (the font I'm using now shows the letter Ւ differently, with a horizontal small line).
Շ շ (sha)  as in "shame"
Չ չ (ch'a)  as in "chair". We shall represent this letter as ch' in our transcriptions (that is, with an apostrophe, as in the transcription system of the Library of Congress).
Ջ ջ (je/che) as in "jam" (in WA as in "chair")
Compare carefully the shapes of the following three letters with each other to remember the small differences that they have, as they are like each other and can be easily confused with each other. 
Զ զ (za) ---------Ջ ջ (je/che) --------- Չ չ (ch'a) 

The sounds of the following three letters do not have their equivalents in the English sound system but have in German.
   Ց ց (c'o=tso). It is pronounced like the German Z z. We'll represent this letter with the IPA character c' (c with an apostrophe) in our transcriptions. Please, don't confuse it with the English "c". The reason we choose to use this IPA character for this sound instead of "ts" is to avoid confusing this simple sound with the combination of the two sounds "t" and "s".
   Խ խ (xe=khe). This is pronounced almost like the German "ch", as in the word "Bach". It's a guttural sound. We'll represent this letter with the IPA character x in our transcriptions. Please, don't confuse it with the English "x". The reason we choose this IPA character is the same as in case of the above letter.
   Ղ ղ ( ł - ghat/ghad). This is pronounced like the German or French "r". It's a guttural sound too. However, in the Grabar times, for example, in the 5th century, and perhaps until the 9th century, this letter was for another kind of the sound "l", a hard "l" which was approximately like the sound "l" in the English word "ball" (more similar to the sound "l" in the Russian word "лысый".) It is interesting that in several Indo-European languages different non-guttural sounds changed to the guttural "gh". In Greek the sound "g" (expressed by the letter Γγ) changed into "gh", in German and French the sound "r", while in Armenian the hard sound "l" changed into "gh". That is why in the Hübschmann-Meillet-Benveniste transliteration system the character for this Armenian letter is ł. We shall read this letter as "gh", according to the traditional pronunciation of Armenian, and shall represent this sound with the character ł. 

Grammar
The infinitive and some history
    The infinitive in the Classical Armenian has 3-5 endings. To understand why I have written 3-5, we need first to learn a little about the history of Grabar. Grabar used in the literature before 460s or so is usually called Mesropian Armenian. This is perhaps the most important and fruitful period, the Golden Era, of the Armenian literature, created by Sts Mesrop and Sahak, together with their disciples, through numerous translations from Greek and Syriac and through their own original writings too. The language of the period after 460s is called Post-Mesropian. There are other periods and classifications too, but we'll be satisfied now with this information only. This division or classification is made because of the linguistic differences of the Armenian language used in different periods. Now, the infinitive of the Mesropian Armenian has only 3 endings, while that of Post-Mesropian Armenian - 4. The endings of the infinitive are:
-ել (-el)
-իլ (-il) This is not used in the Mesropian Armenian; the ending -ել (-el) is used instead.
-ալ (-al)
-ուլ (-ul)
There is also only one defective verb which has the ending -ոլ (-ol). It is the verb գոլ (gol / k'ol) which means "to be". So if we count this ending too, then there are 5 endings in total.

սիրել (sirel) - to love, գրել (gərel / k'ərel) - to write, ասել (asel) - to say
լինել // լինիլ (linel // linil) - to be, to exist, ուսանել // ուսանիլ (usanel // usanil) - to study, to learn, ունել // ունիլ (unel // unil) - to have, to hold
գնալ (gənal / k'ənal) - to go, գալ (gal / k'al) - to come, ջանալ (janal / chanal) - to try, to endeavour
թողուլ (tołul) - to leave, to give up, առնուլ (arnul) - to take, զգենուլ (zgenul or əzgenul / əzk'enul) - to put on

The negative article ոչ (voch') or չ- (ch'-)
ոչ ես, ոչ դու (voch' yes, voch' du / t'u) - neither I, nor you
ոչ ոք (voch' vok') - nobody
չսիրել (ch'əsirel) - not to love
չգնալ (ch'əgənal / ch'ək'ənal) - not to go

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հաց եւ ջուր (hac' yev jur / ch'ur) - bread and water
հաց եւ գինի (hac' yev gini / k'ini) - bread and wine
սեղան (sełan) - table, altar
հայ (hay) - Armenian (noun)
հայերէն (hayeren) - Armenian (of the language) (adjective)in Armenian (adverb)
բան հայերէն (ban / p'an hayeren) - Armenian word
բանք հայերէնք (bank' hayerenk' / p'ank' hayerenk') - Armenian words
ասել հայերէն (asel hayeren) - to say in Armenian
լեզու հայոց (lezu hayoc') - the language of the Armenians
ուսանել զլեզու հայոց (usanel əzlezu hayoc') - to study the Armenian language
Հա՞յ ես։ (Hay es?) - Are you (an) Armenian?
Ո՛չ, ոչ եմ հայ։ (Voch, voch em hay). - No, I'm not (an) Armenian.
Or:
Չեմ հայ։ (Chem hay). - I'm not (an) Armenian. 
Բարի է սիրել զամենեսեան։ (Bari / P'ari e sirel zamenesean.) - It is good to love every one.
Ո՞ւր ես, Ադա՛մ։ (Ur es, Adam / At'am) - Where are you, Adam?
աթոռ (at'or') - chair
դուռն (durn / t'urn) - door
խաչ (xach') - cross
ունել ինչ (unel inch') - to have something
Զի՞նչ է այդ։ (Zinch e ayd / ayt'?) - What is that? 
աշխարհ (ashxarh) - world
աշխարհ ամենայն (ashxarh amenayn) - the whole world
ամենայն (amenayn) - all, every, the whole
ամենայն ոք (amenayn vok') - everyone
ամենայն ինչ (amenayn inch') - everything
ամենայն սեղան (amenayn sełan) - every table
սեղանք ամենայն (sełank' amenayn) - all tables
շուն (shun) - dog; adulterer
շնացող (shənac'oł) - adulterer
ցաւ (c'av) - pain
լոյս (luys) - light
խաւար (xavar) - dark; darkness
բայց (bayc' / p'ayc') - but
Երուսաղէմ (Yerusałem) - Jerusalem
աղաւնի (ałavni) - dove
եղբայր (yełbayr / yeghp'ayr) - brother
որդի (vordi or vort'i / vort'i) - son
հոգի (hogi or hok'i / hok'i) - spirit, soul
մարմին (marmin) - body, flesh
սուրբ (surb or surp' / surp') - holy, saint
Հոգի Սուրբ (Hogi Surb or Hok'i Surp' / Hok'i Surp') - Holy Spirit 
Սուրբ Հոգի (Surb Hogi or  Hok'i Hok'i / Surp' Hok'i) - the same
չար (ch'ar) - evil, bad
բարի (bari / p'ari) - good, kind
խորհուրդ (xorhurd or xorhurt' / xorhurt') - thought; sacrament; mystery; meaning
խորհուրդ չար (xorhurd ch'ar) - evil thought
խորհուրդ սքանչելի (xorhurd sk'anch'eli / əsk'anch'eli) - wonderful mystery 
խորհուրդք սքանչելիք (xorhurdək' sk'anch'elik' / xorhurt'ək' (ə)sk'anch'elik') - wonderful mysteries

Capital letters: ՀԱՑ (hac'), Ջուր (jur / ch'ur), ԳԻՆԻ (gini / k'ini), ՍԵՂԱՆ (sełan), Աթոռ (at'or'), ԽԱՉ (xach'), ԱՇԽԱՐՀ ԱՄԵՆԱՅՆ (ashxarh amenayn), Շուն (shun), Շնացող (shənac'oł), Ցաւ (c'av), Լոյս (luys), Խաւար (xavar), ԲԱՅՑ (bayc' / p'ayc'), ԵՐՈՒՍԱՂԷՄ (Yerusał em), Խորհուրդ (xorhurd), Սքանչելի (sk'anch'eli / əsk'anch'eli), ՉԱՐ (ch'ar), ԲԱՐԻ (bari / p'ari), ՈՐԴԻ (vord'i or vort'i/ vort'i), ՀՈԳԻ (hogi or hok'i / hok'i), Բան (ban / p'an) , Բանք (banək' / p'anə'k), Դուռն (durn/ t'urn), Բարի է (bari e / p'ari e), ԵՂԲԱՅՐ (yeł bayr or yełpayr / yełp'ayr), ԱՂԱՒՆԻ (ałavni), ԽԱՉ (xach'), Ադամ (Adam / At'am), Զամենեսեան (zamenesean), ԱՍԵԼ (asel), ՋԱՆԱԼ (janal / ch'anal), Սուրբ (surb or surp' / surp'), ՀԱՅ (hay), Հայերէն (hayeren), Լեզու հայոց (lezu hayoc'), Չսիրել (chəsirel), Չգնալ (chəgənal / chək'ənal

To listen to the Armenian letters, words and sentences of this lesson, click on the following link -


http://www.mediafire.com/listen/lb59mva9h985ug8/Classical_Armenian-4-mp3.mp3